Progressive Deterioration in Kidney Function
PKD includes Autosomal Dominant PKD and recessive trait. The course and treatment of the disease will be discussed here.
Autosomal PKD is caused by mutations of PKD1 on chromosome 16 or PKD2 on chromosome 4. PKD1 is more common,accounting for approximately 85% of Autosomal PKD.
In early decades of years, the patients do not present with symptoms or discomforts at all when the cysts are small. Generally, the disease is detected out in tests for another problem by accident. Most of the patients begin to develop symptoms like high blood pressure, back or flank pain,bleeding in urine by age 30~40.
With age, more and more cystic fluid is secreted by the epithelial cells on cyst wall, but there is no a channel for the fluid to drain out. Consequently, the cysts will become larger and larger, thus squeezing the surrounding healthy nephrons and take more and more normal kidney tissues. Eventually, Autosomal Dominant PKD end up with Renal Failure. It is reported that more than 50% of the patients develop Renal Failure by age 60 and have to rely on dialysis or kidney transplant to sustain life.
Although there is no a cure for Autosomal Dominant PKD is not available, a proper treatment can stop renal function decline and prolong life span.
Conventionally, the treatments only focus on controlling of the symptoms of Autosomal Dominant PKD. The patients are prescribed with painkillers to relieve pain and medications to control blood pressure. After many years, when the kidneys fail, people with End Stage Renal Failure must seek one of two options for replacing kidney function:dialysis or transplantation.